# LaTeX Math Symbols – A glossary

## An overview of commonly used math symbols in LaTeX

Since LaTeX offers a large amount of features, it’s hard to remember all commands. Even though commands follow a logical naming scheme, you will probably need a table for the most common math symbols at some point. I don’t want to provide a complete list of LaTeX symbols on this website. The ctan already provides a huge list with currently 5913 symbols, which you can download here . Instead I’m trying to limit this list to the most common math symbols and commands. If you think I forgot some very important basic function or symbol here, please let me know.

## List of common $$\LaTeX$$ math symbols

### Trigonometric functions

The symbols for trigonometric functions have a very straightforward naming scheme. Just precede the common abbreviations with a backslash \ and put your variables in braces.

Name Symbol Command
Sine $$\sin x$$ \sin x
Cosine $$\cos x$$ \cos x
Tangent $$\tan x$$ \tan x
Cotangent $$\cot x$$ \cot x
Secant $$\sec x$$ \sec x
Cosecant $$\csc x$$ \csc x

### Integrals

LaTeX offers math symbols for various kinds of integrals out of the box. Note that you can set the integral boundaries by using the underscore _ and circumflex ^ symbol as seen below.

Name Symbol Command
Indefinite integral $$\int f(x) dx$$ \int f(x) dx
Definite integral $$\int_a^b f(x) x$$ \int_a^b f(x) x
Domain integral $$\int_D f(x) dx$$ \int_D f(x) dx
Double integral $$\iint f(x,y) dx dy$$ \iint f(x,y) dx dy
Triple integral $$\iiint f(x,y,z) dx dy dz$$ \iiint f(x,y,z) dx dy dz
Closed curve integral $$\oint_C F ds$$ \oint_C F ds

### Matrices

Of course LaTeX is able to typeset matrices as well. For this purpose LaTeX offers the following environments. Columns are separated with ampersand & and rows with a double backslash \\ (the linebreak command). Make sure that the number of ampersands is the same for every row.

Name Symbol Command
Matrix $$\begin{matrix}1&0\\1&0\end{matrix}$$

\begin{matrix}1&0\\

1&0\end{matrix}

bMatrix $$\begin{bmatrix}1&0\\1&0\end{bmatrix}$$

\begin{bmatrix}1&0\\

1&0\end{bmatrix}

pMatrix $$\begin{pmatrix}1&0\\1&0\end{pmatrix}$$

\begin{pmatrix}1&0\\

1&0\end{pmatrix}

vMatrix $$\begin{vmatrix}1&0\\1&0\end{vmatrix}$$

\begin{vmatrix}1&0\\

1&0\end{vmatrix}

Determinant $$\det{\begin{vmatrix}1&0\\1&0\end{vmatrix}}$$

\det{\begin{vmatrix}1&0\\

1&0\end{vmatrix}}

If you want to typeset very large matrices, the following commands can become in handy as well.

### Dots

The most common dot symbols used in math notation are available in LaTeX as well.

Name Symbol Command
Middot / Centered dot $$\cdot$$ \cdot
Horizontal Dots / Centered dots $$\cdots$$ \cdots
Vertical Dots $$\vdots$$ \vdots

Diagonal Dots

$$\ddots$$ \ddots

Lower Dots

$$\ldots$$

\ldots

Example: $$\begin{bmatrix}1 & 0 & \cdots & 0\\1 & 0 & \cdots & 0\\\vdots & \vdots & \ddots & \vdots \\1 & 0 & 0 & 0\end{bmatrix}$$

\begin{bmatrix}

1 & 0 & \cdots & 0\\

1 & 0 & \cdots & 0\\

\vdots & \vdots & \ddots & \vdots \\

1 & 0 & 0 & 0

\end{bmatrix}

### Miscellaneous functions

Here are some more basic functions which don’t fit in the categories mentioned above.

Name Symbol Command
Logarithmic Function / Logarithm $$\log{x}$$ \log{x}
Logarithm (base a) $$\log_a{b}$$ \log_a{b}
Square root function / Square root $$\sqrt{x}$$ \sqrtx}
n-th root function / n-th root $$\sqrt[n]{x}$$ \sqrt[n]{x}
Rational function / Fraction $$\frac{u(x)}{v(x)}$$ \frac{u(x)}{v(x)}