## LaTeX has dozens of special mathematical symbols. A few of them, such as +,-, *<*, and *>*, are produced by typing the corresponding keyboard characters. Others are obtained with LaTeX commands as the case with arrow symbols which is the purpose of this post!

- Default LaTeX arrow symbols.
- amssymb LaTeX arrow symbols.
- Arrow in a mathematical mode.
- Alternate commands for simple arrows.
- Long LaTeX arrows.
- Text above and below arrows.

## Arrow LaTeX Symbols

In LaTeX, by default different types of arrow symbols are available. Arrows can be used in equations, text, pictures, and so on. Here is a list of arrow LaTeX commands that can be used without loading any package:

Description | LaTeX command | Output |
---|---|---|

Left Arrow, Right arrow |
| \(\leftarrow\), \(\rightarrow\) |

Double Left Arrow, Double right arrow |
| \(\Leftarrow\), \(\Rightarrow\) |

Long double Left Arrow | `\Longleftarrow` | \(\Longleftarrow\) |

Long Left Arrow |
| \(\longleftarrow\) |

Long Right Arrow | `\longrightarrow` | \(\longrightarrow\) |

Long Double Right Arrow | `\Longrightarrow` | \(\Longrightarrow\) |

Left and right arrow | `\leftrightarrow` | \(\leftrightarrow\) |

Long left and right arrow | `\longleftrightarrow` | \(\longleftrightarrow\) |

If and only if arrow | `\Leftrightarrow` | \(\Leftrightarrow\) |

Long If and only if arrow | `\Longleftrightarrow` | \(\Longleftrightarrow\) |

Upward Arrow, Down arrow | `\uparrow, \downarrow` | \(\uparrow\), \(\downarrow\) |

Double Upward Arrow | `\Uparrow` | \(\Uparrow\) |

Long Upward Arrow | `\big\uparrow` | \(\big\uparrow\) |

Double Downward Arrow | `\Downarrow` | \(\Downarrow\) |

Long Downward Arrow | `\big\downarrow` | \(\big\downarrow\) |

Upward Downward Arrow | `\updownarrow` | \(\big\updownarrow\) |

Long Upward Downward Arrow | `\big\updownarrow` | \(\big\updownarrow\) |

Double side Upward Downward Arrow | `\Updownarrow` | \(\Updownarrow\) |

Long Double side Upward Downward Arrow | `\big\Updownarrow` | \(\big\Updownarrow\) |

## Arrow LaTeX symbols provided by amssymb

The following multitude of arrow symbols require an additional package called ** amssymb**:

Description | LaTeX command | Output |
---|---|---|

Twin Head Arrow | `\twoheadleftarrow` | \(\twoheadleftarrow\) |

Lesh Arrow | `\Lsh` | \(\Lsh\) |

Twin Left Arrow | `\leftleftarrows` | \(\leftleftarrows \) |

Twin Up Arrow | `\upuparrows` | \(\upuparrows \) |

Twin Down Arrow | `\downdownarrows` | \(\downdownarrows \) |

Opposite Direction Arrow | `\rightleftarrows` | \(\rightleftarrows \) |

Large Left, Right Arrow | `\Lleftarrow, \Rrightarrow` | \( \Lleftarrow\), \(\Rrightarrow\), |

Left Arrow With tail | `\leftarrowtail` | \( \leftarrowtail\) |

Right Arrow with tail | `\rightarrowtail` | \( \rightarrowtail\) |

Squig (leads to Right) Arrow | `\rightsquigarrow` | \( \rightsquigarrow\) |

Squig Arrow(both direction) | `\leftrightsquigarrow` | \( \leftrightsquigarrow\) |

Loop Arrow (Left) | `\looparrowleft` | \( \looparrowleft\) |

Loop Arrow (Right) | `\looparrowright` | \( \looparrowright\) |

Circle Arrow (Left) | `\circlearrowleft` | \(\circlearrowleft \) |

Circle Arrow (Right) | `\circlearrowright` | \( \circlearrowright\) |

Curve Arrow (Left) | `\curvearrowleft` | \( \curvearrowleft\) |

Curve Arrow(Right) | `\curvearrowright` | \(\curvearrowright \) |

(Not) Left, Right Arrow | `\nleftarrow,\nrightarrow` | \(\nleftarrow \), \(\nrightarrow \) |

We can use the LaTeX arrow symbol both in mathematical formulas and text mode, even in pictures and margin indicators.

## Arrow in Mathematical Formulas

We can use various types of arrows in mathematical mode in LaTeX in a pretty straightforward way. We only need to declare the appropriate arrow commands. Here is an example:

% Arrow in mathematical formulas \documentclass{article} \usepackage{amsmath} \begin{document} \begin{align*} z &\Rightarrow r + f(b_y) \\ & \Rightarrow r + f(c_y) \end{align*} \end{document}

Output of the Equation:

**Use of alternate commands of **← **, **→ **, and **⇔

The arrow symbols *← *and *→ *can also be referred to under the names ** \to** and

**. Another command ⇔ can be replaced by**

`\gets`

**. Here is an example that uses**

`\iff`

**instead of**

`\to`

**in an equation:**

`\leftarrow`

% \to, \gets and \iff commands \documentclass{article} \usepackage{amsmath} \begin{document} % Use of \to command $$f(c) \to 2x+1$$ % display style one way $$f(c) \rightarrow 2x+1$$ %display style other way % Use of \gets command $$f(c) \gets 2x+1$$ %display style one way $$f(c) \leftarrow 2x+1$$ %display style other way % Use of \iff command $$f(c+a) \iff f(c)+f(a)$$ %display style one way $$f(c+a) \Longleftrightarrow f(c)+f(a)$$ %display style other way \end{document}

Output:

## Long LaTeX Arrows in Mathematical Mode

**amsmath **package of LaTeX offers a bunch of commands to generate **“Extra Long Arrows” **for combining with mathematical expressions. Here are the commands of lengthening arrows on the **top **of any math expressions pointing towards left, right, and both directions:

% Long arrows in latex (over) \documentclass{article} \usepackage{amsmath} \begin{document} $$\overleftarrow{(\alpha+\beta)}$$ $$\overrightarrow{(\eta-\epsilon)}$$ $$\overleftrightarrow{(\mu+\zeta)}$$ \end{document}

Compiling this code yields:

Besides, the following commands refer to the extended arrows **under **any math expressions (change over prefix by under prefix):

% Long arrows in latex (under) \documentclass{article} \usepackage{amsmath} \begin{document} $$\underleftarrow{(\alpha+\beta)}$$ $$\underrightarrow{(\eta-\epsilon)}$$ $$\underleftrightarrow{(\mu+\zeta)}$$ \end{document}

Compiling this code yields:

The lower arrows are usually too close to the math expressions, as is seen on the above equations. To avoid these issues, you need to add a \rule to push them downward as shown below:

% Long arrows in latex (under) \documentclass{article} \usepackage{amsmath} \begin{document} $\underrightarrow{\rule[-4pt]{0pt}{2pt}{PQ}}= \underrightarrow{\rule[-4pt]{0pt}{2pt}{QS}}+ \underrightarrow{\rule[-4pt]{0pt}{2pt}{RS}}+ \underrightarrow{\rule[-4pt]{0pt}{2pt}{QR}}$ \end{document}

Output:

## Text above and below arrows

The package mathtools offers more possibilities for combining arrows and text labels.

At this level, we reached the end of this post. I hope you find it useful ???